Hi there, Im trying to get some names that are used for size of things...


SIZES AND SUCH THINGS....


ordinal name    number of bytes                            computational name                                            amount of text

                2^0  or 1                                  byte
                2^1  or 2                                  word
                2^2  or 4                                  dword
                2^3  or 8                                  quad word
                2^4  or 16                                double quad word / PARAGRAPH


                2^8  or 256                                paragraph / page
                2^9  or 512                                page (old days)

kilobyte (kB) 2^10 or 1,024                                                                                            1/2 page
                2^12 or 4,096                              Paragraph / page (this days: page size)
                2^16 - 1                                  Segment: A contiguous area of memory 65,535 bytes long
megabyte (mB) 2^20 or 1,048,576                                                                                        500 pages or 1 thick book
gigabyte (gB) 2^30 or 1,073,741,824                                                                                    500,000 pages or 1,000 thick books
terabyte (tB) 2^40 or 1,099,511,627,776                                                                                1,000,000 thick books
petabyte        2^50 or 1,125,899,906,842,624                                                                            180 Libraries of Congress
exabyte        2^60 or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976                                                                        180 thousand Libraries of Congress
zettabyte      2^70 or 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424                                                                    180 million Libraries of Congress
yottabyte      2^80 or 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176                                                                180 billion Libraries of Congress


I have collected the names from the firsts results of a search and some threads here and there.. but I dont get it... specially with the names from 16 bytes to 2^16 bytes (65536 bytes) and 2^16-1 ;), hope you can help me because I have confused my self... If you whant to see the first "recollection" (that is more messy than this one) only say it :).

For example I have finded (If Im not wrong) that 3 diferent sizes claim to be a paragraph and 3 diferent sizes claim to be a page.... with the "bis quantity" there is not much incoherence.

Posted on 2005-05-06 11:40:08 by rea

For example I have finded (If Im not wrong) that 3 diferent sizes claim to be a paragraph and 3 diferent sizes claim to be a page.... with the "bis quantity" there is not much incoherence.

Different terminology from the dark ages of 16bit assembly - basically, ignore most of it :) (from 2^4 - 2^10).

Today, "page" refers to the "page size" used in hardware protection (per-page read/write/execute bits and such). The traditional size on x86 is 4kb, but there are both 2meg and 4meg extensions, introduced with PPro iirc.

The x87 has an 4byte float/single/REAL4, 8byte double/REAL8, and a 10byte EXTENDED/REAL10 ("complex" in pascal terms, iirc) format that it uses internally, and there's 16byte SSE/SSE2/SSE3 data (which can be used to back 2 doubles or 4 floats).

Then there's of course the 4bit nibble, but the smallest directly addressable data quantity on the IA32 platform is the 8bit BYTE :)
Posted on 2005-05-06 11:57:58 by f0dder
For example 512 bytes can be considered a sector :S..

I whant to get specially the names to

bytes
256
512
2^16 = 65536


is because I whant to write some thing like a "Kilobyte" (that in fact is not 1000 bytes.. lol) contain 2 sectors :). In that way I will not need to "modify" the meaning of 10^3 to be equal to 2^10  :lol:. ;).
Posted on 2005-05-06 12:21:11 by rea
Sorry, forget 512byte == sector (it's possible that some drives, like SCSI, can have different sectorsize, but ATA drives are always 512 bytes, if I'm  not mistaken).

I don't know of any convenient name for 256 bytes - there might be some ancient term from the 16bit dos days, but I'd just say "256 bytes" to avoid confusion. The same way, 2^16 == 64kb.
Posted on 2005-05-06 12:29:05 by f0dder
I was hoping that there exist a name for 2^16 :) for say that a megabyte contain 16 2^16 :)... :'(

By the way, like I have readed 2^16-1 is a "real" segment... bad that 2^16 dosent have a name ?? or Im missing this one?




mmmm, renaming the question, there exist numeration for binary??? like


1 one
2 two
3 three
4 foru
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 then
11...

100 one hundred ???


But for binary... I think that should be the best way to solve the incoherence of 10^3 ?s equal to 2^10 :D, yes htat is the way... I gues.. ??????
Posted on 2005-05-06 12:35:49 by rea
ok, I hav tried to name binary, but I guess it will be to complicated to give names, by the fact that the displacement is each 1: 0, 1, 10, 11, 100 will be hard to name: zero, one, one displaced 1, one displaced one plus one, one displaced one displaced one ???? ;).

What about hexadecimal??? name then without refer to decimal system names?

0 zero
1 one
2 two
..
9 nine
a "a"
b "b"
c "c"
d "d"
e "e"
f "f"
10 hexty
11 hexty one
..
20 two hexty
..
"a3" "a" hexty three :)
..
a4f "a" hext "a" hexty "f"



????
Posted on 2005-05-06 13:09:40 by rea
ok, some one as gived me this hint :) for binary (tought there exist for hexadecimal???)


This is for binary multiples...
(exerpted from units.dat)
kibi-                  2^10    # In response to the convention of illegally
mebi-                  2^20    # and confusingly using metric prefixes for
gibi-                  2^30    # powers of two, the International
tebi-                  2^40    # Electrotechnical Commission aproved these
pebi-                  2^50    # binary prefixes for use in 1998.  If you
exbi-                  2^60    # want to refer to "megabytes" using the
Ki-                    kibi    # binary definition, use these prefixes.


Tought I will still like to know 2^4, 2^8, 2^9, some one can point them???


For bytes:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibibyte
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mebibyte
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibibyte
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tebibyte
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pebibyte
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exbibyte


For bits:
http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/binary.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_prefix
http://members.optus.net/alexey/prefBin.xhtml (this one compare ratios of aproximation...)
http://www.thic.org/pdf/Jun04/fujifilm.mmccorkle.pdf




mmm :( there is no a name for 512 = 2^9 :S I will try to give hints to IEC for name this size :D lol.


I have ordered the thing above, in that way, you will not lose how to call a binary or a byte multiple ;).
Posted on 2005-05-06 13:35:13 by rea

I have collected the names from the firsts results of a search and some threads here and there.. but I dont get it... specially with the names from 16 bytes to 2^16 bytes (65536 bytes) and 2^16-1 ;), hope you can help me because I have confused my self... If you whant to see the first "recollection" (that is more messy than this one) only say it :).

For example I have finded (If Im not wrong) that 3 diferent sizes claim to be a paragraph and 3 diferent sizes claim to be a page.... with the "bis quantity" there is not much incoherence.

That's because paragraphs and pages are references to addressing, not to sizes.

There are still a lot of 8-bit processors being programmed, although most of the programmers are using them for hardware control. A "page" on these embedded systems is created by the convenient split of a 16-bit address into two 8-bit parts. The high 8 bits are known as the page number, and the low 8 bits can address 256 locations within the page. This is not the same as bank selection, as the full address can be used with many instructions. But there can be a set of instructions that can only be used with the lowest (page 0) memory locations.

Likewise, for virtual memory, the high bits of an address is the page number, and the low bits access the locations within the page. The size of the page is larger for the convenience and efficiency of disk transfers. In this case, a page is the smallest unit of disk transfer that supports virtual memory. It can be any convenient size.
Posted on 2005-05-06 14:39:00 by tenkey

In response to the convention of illegally and confusingly using metric prefixes for powers of two, the International Electrotechnical Commission aproved these binary prefixes for use in 1998.  If you want to refer to "megabytes" using the binary definition, use these prefixes.

Darn hippies! :-)

kb/mb/gb (et cetera) aren't confusing as long as you have the context they're being used in. (computers = 2^10, math/physics = 10^3). I bet it's a group of frenchies that started the whole KiB, MiB, GiB thing. Looks silly.
Posted on 2005-05-06 15:08:38 by f0dder
mmmm, ya, I get it :) that is the diference ;).

The official notations only define a little subset....

This are defined "standar" in the docs of Intel or AMD I supose:


2^0  or 1                                  byte
2^1  or 2                                  word
2^2  or 4                                  dword
2^3  or 8                                  quad word
2^4  or 16                                double quad word



How it will be a proper way to call 512 bytes?? instead of 512 bytes = 2^9 bytes :D.  And 2^8 and 2^16.

Is there a proper way to call them?
Posted on 2005-05-06 15:09:19 by rea
fOdder read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_prefix is interesting the thing about the DVD and CD-ROM by example
CD capacities are always given in binary units. A "700 MB" (or "80 minute") CD has a nominal capacity of about 700 MiB. But DVD capacities are given in decimal units. A "4.7 GB" DVD has a nominal capacity of about 4.38 GiB.
also the thing about clock cycles ;)... this:
Decimal versions are used when dealing with bus bandwidth (e.g. "Ultra SCSI has a bandwidth of 40 megabytes per second"). Interestingly, this is not because hard drive capacities use the decimal versions, or because bitrates do, but because clock speeds do.


;)..
Posted on 2005-05-06 15:13:22 by rea

This are defined "standar" in the docs of Intel or AMD I supose:


2^0? or 1? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? byte
2^1? or 2? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? word
2^2? or 4? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? dword
2^3? or 8? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? quad word
2^4? or 16? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?double quad word



These definitions are actually holdovers from 8-bit and 16-bit computing.

A word can be any size. The classic PDP-8 had 12-bit words. There were mainframes that had 60-bit and 36-bit words. They are probably running only in personal "museums" now.

I hear the IBM mainframe (370) is still around and it is older than the x86, by about 15 years, I believe. (If it can hang around this long, so can the Pentium and its clones.) Its terminology was also used by the classic 32-bit VAX. (You may recognize this terminology if you work on the GCC compiler.) Both machines are byte-addressable.

8-bit byte
16-bit halfword
32-bit fullword
64-bit doubleword

If enough people learn from D.Knuth, you may see these terms appear

8-bit byte
16-bit wyde
32-bit tetra
64-bit octa
Posted on 2005-05-07 15:32:43 by tenkey
Also in the external link of wikipedia

1 nibble = 1 ni =  4 bit
1 rune  = 1 r  = 16 bit
1 quad  = 1 q  = 32 bit



And the last one link There is no such thing as a 1.44MB standard format floppy disc.


Also aparently from there, the only way I can call with "standar" 512 bytes is 0.5KiB = 512 bytes :).
Posted on 2005-05-08 15:58:59 by rea
Concerning "nibble": It's actually supposed to be "nybble". Bite and nibble; byte and nybble. Puns are fun.
Posted on 2005-05-08 17:08:47 by death
By the way:

A byte isn't necessarily 8 bits (a nybble is half a byte). An "octet" is always 8 bits.
Intel's "word" is 16 bits, other definitions vary.
Posted on 2005-05-08 17:15:09 by death