I just recently upgraded and decided to decompile win64's dll's to see what makes it tick.
So I started with MSVCRT.DLL in the windows/SystemSxS/AMD64.Microsoft.windows.CPlusPlusRuntime/ directory.

If you want to know how NOT to code in ASM I suggest you decompile this dll when you get a chance.
Here's a gem :|~
.text:000007FF760BA760 ; __int64 __cdecl abs64(__int64)
.text:000007FF760BA760                public _abs64
.text:000007FF760BA760 _abs64          proc near
.text:000007FF760BA760                test    rcx, rcx
.text:000007FF760BA763                jns    short loc_7FF760BA768
.text:000007FF760BA765                neg    rcx
.text:000007FF760BA768
.text:000007FF760BA768 loc_7FF760BA768:                        ; CODE XREF: _abs64+3j
.text:000007FF760BA768                mov    rax, rcx
.text:000007FF760BA76B                retn
.text:000007FF760BA76B _abs64          endp

Apparently M$ thinks you need a branch to return the absolute value of an integer.
Anyone else would have probably chosen this method
AND  RCX, 7FFFFFFF FFFFFFFFh
MOV RAX, RCX
RETN

Here's how C++ finds the length of a string
.text:000007FF760D2E20 ; size_t __cdecl strlen(const char *)
.text:000007FF760D2E20                public strlen
.text:000007FF760D2E20 strlen          proc near
.text:000007FF760D2E20                mov    rax, rcx
.text:000007FF760D2E23                neg    rcx
.text:000007FF760D2E26                test    rax, 7
.text:000007FF760D2E2C                jz      short loc_7FF760D2E3D
.text:000007FF760D2E2E                db      66h
.text:000007FF760D2E2E                nop
.text:000007FF760D2E30
.text:000007FF760D2E30 loc_7FF760D2E30:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+1Bj
.text:000007FF760D2E30                mov    dl,
.text:000007FF760D2E32                inc    rax
.text:000007FF760D2E35                test    dl, dl
.text:000007FF760D2E37                jz      short loc_7FF760D2E98
.text:000007FF760D2E39                test    al, 7
.text:000007FF760D2E3B                jnz    short loc_7FF760D2E30
.text:000007FF760D2E3D
.text:000007FF760D2E3D loc_7FF760D2E3D:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+Cj
.text:000007FF760D2E3D                mov    r8, 7EFEFEFEFEFEFEFFh
.text:000007FF760D2E47                mov    r11, 8101010101010100h
.text:000007FF760D2E51
.text:000007FF760D2E51 loc_7FF760D2E51:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+47j
.text:000007FF760D2E51                                        ; strlen+76j
.text:000007FF760D2E51                mov    rdx,
.text:000007FF760D2E54                mov    r9, r8
.text:000007FF760D2E57                add    rax, 8
.text:000007FF760D2E5B                add    r9, rdx
.text:000007FF760D2E5E                not    rdx
.text:000007FF760D2E61                xor    rdx, r9
.text:000007FF760D2E64                and    rdx, r11
.text:000007FF760D2E67                jz      short loc_7FF760D2E51
.text:000007FF760D2E69                mov    rdx,
.text:000007FF760D2E6D                test    dl, dl
.text:000007FF760D2E6F                jz      short loc_7FF760D2EC2
.text:000007FF760D2E71                test    dh, dh
.text:000007FF760D2E73                jz      short loc_7FF760D2EBC
.text:000007FF760D2E75                shr    rdx, 10h
.text:000007FF760D2E79                test    dl, dl
.text:000007FF760D2E7B                jz      short loc_7FF760D2EB6
.text:000007FF760D2E7D                test    dh, dh
.text:000007FF760D2E7F                jz      short loc_7FF760D2EB0
.text:000007FF760D2E81                shr    rdx, 10h
.text:000007FF760D2E85                test    dl, dl
.text:000007FF760D2E87                jz      short loc_7FF760D2EAA
.text:000007FF760D2E89                test    dh, dh
.text:000007FF760D2E8B                jz      short loc_7FF760D2EA4
.text:000007FF760D2E8D                shr    edx, 10h
.text:000007FF760D2E90                test    dl, dl
.text:000007FF760D2E92                jz      short loc_7FF760D2E9E
.text:000007FF760D2E94                test    dh, dh
.text:000007FF760D2E96                jnz    short loc_7FF760D2E51
.text:000007FF760D2E98
.text:000007FF760D2E98 loc_7FF760D2E98:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+17j
.text:000007FF760D2E98                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2E9D                retn
.text:000007FF760D2E9E ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
.text:000007FF760D2E9E
.text:000007FF760D2E9E loc_7FF760D2E9E:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+72j
.text:000007FF760D2E9E                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2EA3                retn
.text:000007FF760D2EA4 ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
.text:000007FF760D2EA4
.text:000007FF760D2EA4 loc_7FF760D2EA4:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+6Bj
.text:000007FF760D2EA4                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2EA9                retn
.text:000007FF760D2EAA ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
.text:000007FF760D2EAA
.text:000007FF760D2EAA loc_7FF760D2EAA:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+67j
.text:000007FF760D2EAA                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2EAF                retn
.text:000007FF760D2EB0 ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
.text:000007FF760D2EB0
.text:000007FF760D2EB0 loc_7FF760D2EB0:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+5Fj
.text:000007FF760D2EB0                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2EB5                retn
.text:000007FF760D2EB6 ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
.text:000007FF760D2EB6
.text:000007FF760D2EB6 loc_7FF760D2EB6:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+5Bj
.text:000007FF760D2EB6                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2EBB                retn
.text:000007FF760D2EBC ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
.text:000007FF760D2EBC
.text:000007FF760D2EBC loc_7FF760D2EBC:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+53j
.text:000007FF760D2EBC                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2EC1                retn
.text:000007FF760D2EC2 ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
.text:000007FF760D2EC2
.text:000007FF760D2EC2 loc_7FF760D2EC2:                        ; CODE XREF: strlen+4Fj
.text:000007FF760D2EC2                lea    rax,
.text:000007FF760D2EC7                retn
.text:000007FF760D2EC7 strlen          endp

It's not that bad of a routine. They even used a tid bit from AMD's Optimization manual and aligned the code with the correct 66h and nop sequence.
StrnCpy is less than optimal.

MSVCRT for win64 did get the trig functions right almost totally copy and pasted from AMD64 math library.

The sqrtf routine is pretty funny it runs off about 5 different pointless compares and 15 mov's before it gets to SQRTSS xmm0, xmm0


Hope someone else besides me got a good laugh out of the _abs64 snippet.
Posted on 2005-11-12 14:27:23 by r22
Generally the MSVCRT DLLs don't seem to have been compiled with very agressive optimizations turned on... also, abs() is probably implemented in C code, meant to be compiled both for 32 and 64 bit - so bitmasking tricks can't be directly used. This could of course be implemented with #ifdefs, or the code sequence could be added as a peephole optimization. Who does a function call when they need a fast abs(), though? :) (VC++ has intrinsics for abs(), btw).

Btw, *are* the compares in sqrtf pointless, or are they needed to handle different precision settings?
Posted on 2005-11-12 14:54:09 by f0dder

AND  RCX, 7FFFFFFF FFFFFFFFh
MOV RAX, RCX
RETN

It is for ABS? In an ABS function 1 and -1 should return 1 right? Doing your code with 1 (00...0001b) i get 1 (good), but with -1 (11111...111b) i get 2^63 -1 (011111...1111b), so lets the microsoft use that code...
Posted on 2005-11-12 15:01:18 by Eduardo Schardong
he probably meant this code for a floating point value.
Posted on 2005-11-12 16:32:54 by ti_mo_n
If MS meant it to be for a floating point value, then the  neg rcx would procude the wrong result!!

I think r22 got ahead of himself with this one.

Raymond
Posted on 2005-11-12 17:06:21 by Raymond
MS wanted it for fixed value. r22 wanted it for floating point value :P
Posted on 2005-11-12 18:49:33 by ti_mo_n
Maybe r22 is looking for fabs when he stumbled across abs.  :P
Posted on 2005-11-12 20:24:58 by roticv
Yes I was thinking float when it was clearly an integer
the _abs had 2 functions 1 for int64 and one for int32 exactly the same coding style.

To SAVE my precious rant... using CMOV is faster for amd64 than branching
test rcx,rcx
jns .noS
neg rcx
.noS:
mov rax,rcx
RUNS SLOWER THAN

(here comes the code I meant to write for int64 _abs(_int64))
mov rax,rcx        ;store in return reg
neg rcx            ;set the sign flag
cmovns rax,rcx  ;mov if no sign flag

Using CMOV runs ~1.6x faster on my x2 3800+

If you don't believe me make sure you use random values when benchmarking to take branch prediction out of it.

Damage control complete.
MSVCRT uses CMOVxx in the SplitPath function why can't they use it in ABS ????? :D
Posted on 2005-11-13 21:50:24 by r22