I was looking at an old book I have called "Commodore 64 Assembly Language" and they always said kernal but, in Windows, it is spelt kernel. Do they mean the same thing? Why are they spelt differently? Or more importantly, does anyone care? :lol:
I always cringe when I see the word "Kernal" :)
I remember that time with a dose of nostalgia. Exept C64 ,we use to have then a 6502 called "Pravetz" and and Z80 equ's also in Bulgaria. We use to call the "Kernal" a "Monitor" .It's a little bit hard to explain to people that never meet that "tech" how was it, but that was the memory mapped view (and manager at the same time) something like a disassembler with real-time addressing :).
Monitor was specificaly a 'memory and CPU monitoring program'. In C64 it was being added thgough 'cartridge' put in the expansion port. Kernal is not a Kernel to me. The Kernel is "OS core". Such OS core in C64 resided at memory addresses B000-BFFF (if my memory is not wrong), while Kernal was at "Exxx". Kernal was a shortcut to perform I/O operations, but you could do them by calling the 'kernel' itself (but it didn't have any name - no one was reffering to it by 'kernel'). Internal part of the standard 'OS' was the 'Basic' interpreter which resided at A000-AFFF. Of course you could unmap the portions of memory you didn't need and use it as free RAM (that was what most scene-demos did, since they rarely used any I/O, and if so then it was more 'cool' to write your own DiskDrive 'driver', which was smaller and faster). Before ending your app you could map the ROM back to RAM and quit. Those days, where you had no space for anyhing, while you wanted to put there everything, will never return :P Now you have memory for everything and you waste it for stupd algorithms :P
Now you have memory for everything and you waste it for stupd algorithms Tongue
Maybe he is got a nostalgia as well.
Anyway, if someone was interested from what i said above, you can see this , cause that's the way it use to be in those days,i've tryed almost all of them: